شايد نيازمند اين باشيد كه مسير پكتها را به هر علت از طريق ارجحي براي سيستم عامل خود تعيين نماييد.

چندين راه وجوددارد و ما يكي را كه ساده تر است بيان مينماييم:

ابتدا دستور زير را با هر متريكي كه مد نظر داريد در command prompt خود درج نماييد:

route add 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 192.168.0.1 metric 2 -p

اين دستور با متريك 2 هر كس با رنج آي پي 10.0.0.0/8 را كار دارد به سمت اي پي آدرس 192.168.0.1 هدايت ميكند.شما ميتوانيد اين اعداد را متناسب با شبكه خود تغيير دهيد:

كليد p- باعث ميشود اين دستور در مسير زير در جيستري درج گردد:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip \Parameters\PersistentRoutes

اكنون مي توانيد از كليد مزبور يك export‌از درون رجيستري گرفته و روي همه سيستمهايي كه قرار است از اين دستور روتينگ پيروي كنند فقط كافيست فايل رجيستري را با دابل كليك اجرا فرماييد.

نكته: با edit‌نمودن فايل ميتوانيد براحتي آنرا ويرايش كرده براي vlan هاي مختلف استفاده كنيد.

 

To add a static IP route

  1. Open Command Prompt.

  2. At the command prompt, type:

    route add destination mask subnetmask gateway metricc ostmetric if interface

    where:

     

    Static IP route entryDefinition

    destination

    Specifies either an IP address or host name for the network or host.

    subnetmask

    Specifies a subnet mask to be associated with this route entry. If subnetmask is not specified, 255.255.255.255 is used.

    gateway

    Specifies either an IP address or host name for the gateway or router to use when forwarding.

    costmetric

    Assigns an integer cost metric (ranging from 1 through 9,999) to be used in calculating the fastest, most reliable, and/or least expensive routes. If costmetric is not specified, 1 is used.

    interface

    Specifies the interface to be used for the route that uses the interface number. If an interface is not specified, the interface to be used for the route is determined from the gateway IP address.

    For example, to add a static route to the 10.0.0.0 network that uses a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0, a gateway of 192.168.0.1, and a cost metric of 2, you type the following at a command prompt:

    route add 10.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 192.168.0.1 metric 2

Notes

  • To open a command prompt, click Start, point to All programs, point to Accessories, and then click Command prompt.

  • To make a static route persistent, you can either enter route add commands in a batch file that is run during system startup or use the -p option when adding routes.

  • Routes added by using the -p option are stored in the registry under the following key:

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip \Parameters\PersistentRoutes

  • All symbolic names used for destination or gateway are looked up in the network and computer name database files (Networks and Hosts), which are stored in the local systemroot\System32\Drivers\Etc folder.

  • If a route addition fails, you can use the tracert command to verify that the gateway specified is directly reachable from the same subnet as this computer.

Information about functional differences

  • Your server might function differently based on the version and edition of the operating system that is installed, your account permissions, and your menu settings. For more information, see Viewing Help on the Web.

See Also

Concepts

View the IP routing table
Remove a static IP route
IP routing
The IP routing table
TCP/IP database files
Route

منبع : http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc757323%28v=ws.10%29.aspx


برچسب‌ها: اضافه كردن استاتيك روت به ويندوز route add destin
+ نوشته شده در 93/05/01ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |

  • عوامل به بلوغ نرسيده در واحد كسب و كار يا سازمان به خصوص بخش پرسنلي بايد حذف شوند.جايي براي ضعف نميباشد.
  •  وظيف هد و ليدر گروه هماهنگيست نه پيگيري.
  • تيمي كه بايد مرتب پيگيري شود اصولا بايد منحل گردد.
  • اساس اين تيم به دلايل مختلف، حرفه اي عمل نميكند.
  • توجه به اهداف فرعي يا يك زير سيستم خاص يا يك نفر خاص بر اساس علايق فردي به كل سيستم ضربه ميزند.
  •  عدم صلاحيتها نتايج خطي ندارند بلكه بصورت يك دوره كامل همه چيز را ويران كرده و به خود شخص بازميگردند.
  •  در معماري چابك سازماني مديريت ،بر مبناي هدف مطرح است و در مديريت بر مبناي بر هدف نتايج مورد بررسي قرار ميگيرند.
  • بهترين رهبران همواره فرهنگ عملكرد عالي مي افرينند.آنها هدفهايي عالي و نيازمند كار ماهرانه و سخت كوشانه برقرار مينمايند.نتايج را اندازه گيري و به كاركنان مسئوليت ميدهند.
  • آنان كارگزاران تحولنند.

برچسب‌ها: عوامل به بلوغ نرسيده در واحد كشب و كار يا سازمان ب, جايي براي ضعف نميباشد
+ نوشته شده در 93/03/24ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |

BI )Business Intelligence):

هوش سازماني( که به عنوان کسب  و کار هوشمند نيز  مورد خطاب قرار ميگيرد ) يعني >>داشتن دانشي فراگير از همه عواملي که بر سازمان موثر است<<. داشتن دانشي عميق نسبت به همه عوامل مثل مشتريان، رقبا، محيط اقتصادي، عمليات و فرآيندهاي سازماني (مالي، فروش، توليد، منابع انساني و...) که تاثير زيادي بر کيفيت تصميمات مديريتي در سازمان مي‌گذارد.


باتلر (Butler 2001) ميگويد هوش تجاري مديريت درست و موثر اطلاعات براي هدفي تجاري است و اساساً به ارتباط بين كاربر و سيستمهاي فناوري اطلاعات مرتبط ميگردد.

بطور خلاصه: هوش تجاري شرح نيازهاي سازمان است براي تجزيه و تحليل البته به همراه گزارش دهي مناسب و برخط.اين مبحث كاركردها ، گزارش دهي ، تجزيه و تحليل ، انبار داده ، OLAP ، پرتال و .... را در بر ميگيرد.(محمد رضا تارخ – هوش تجاري –دي 1391 –انتشارات دانشگاه خواجه نصير الدين طوسي – چاپ اول)


 هومن عزیزی دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات


لینک دانلود


برچسب‌ها: BI, Business Intelligence, هوش سازمانی, کسب و کار هوشمند
+ نوشته شده در 93/02/21ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |

شناسایی و تحلیل ریسکهای سيستمهاي يكپارچه سازماني ERP

بر اساس روش تصميم گيري چند معياره  فازی

 

استاد ارجمند : جناب دكتر حامد كاظمي پور

هومن عزیزی - دانشجوی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات

واژهﻫﺎي ﮐﻠﯿﺪي


ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ رﯾﺴﮏ -ERP – ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﯿﺮي ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﯿﺎره ﻓﺎزي - ﻓﺮآﯾﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪ ﻣﺮاﺗﺒﯽ ﻓﺎزي-زنجيره فرايند-زنجيره ارزش-تامين كنندگان-مشتري

 

ﭼﮑﯿﺪه

 

در دﻧﯿﺎي رﻗﺎﺑﺘﯽ ﮐﻨﻮﻧﯽ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ سيستمهاي يكپارچه ، ﯾﮑﯽ از ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ اﺳﺎﺳﯽ ﭘﯿﺶ روي ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﯽ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯿﺘﻬﺎي ﺳﺎزﻣﺎنرا ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ و ارايه ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت و اراﺋﻪ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت ﻣﻮرد ﻧﯿﺎز ﻣﺸﺘﺮﯾﺎن ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ ﻗﺮار ﻣﯽ دﻫﺪ. از اﯾﻦ رو ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺘﻬﺎ و ﺗﻬﺪﯾﺪات ﻣﻮﺟﻮد درﻋﺮﺻﻪ ﺗﺠﺎرت ﺟﻬﺎﻧﯽ و ارزﯾﺎﺑﯽ ﺗﻮان ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن در روﯾﺎروﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ رﯾﺴﮑﻬﺎي اﯾﻦ ﻋﺮﺻﻪ از اﻫﻤﯿﺖ اﻧﮑﺎر ﻧﺎﭘﺬﯾﺮي ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار اﺳﺖ. ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ رﯾﺴﮏ درمقوله استقرار ERP، وﻇﯿﻔﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﯾﯽ، ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ، اراﺋﻪ راﻫﮑﺎرﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺟﻬﺖ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮔﻮﯾﯽ، ﮐﻨﺘﺮل و ﭘﺎﯾﺶ رﯾﺴﮑﻬﺎ در ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻫﺎي اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي وﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪي را ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪه دارد. در اﯾﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ اﻟﮕﻮرﯾﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﯿﺮي ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﯿﺎره ﻣﻌﺮﻓﯽ و ﺿﺮورت ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎرﮔﯿﺮي ﻣﻔﺎﻫﯿﻢ ﻓﺎزي در ﻣﺤﯿﻂ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖرﯾﺴﮏ ﺑﯿﺎن ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد. در اداﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ رﯾﺸﻪ ﻫﺎ و ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪم ﻗﻄﻌﯿﺖ و مسايل مختلف در رابطه با استقرار سيستمهاي ERP  پرداخته  و ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺟﺎﻣﻌﯽ از رﯾﺴﮑﻬﺎ وﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮات مرتبط با آن ﺗﻬﯿﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ. در اﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺪل ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎدي ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ارزﯾﺎﺑﯽ رﯾﺴﮑﻬﺎي استقرار سيستمهاي ERP ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻓﺮآﯾﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪﻣﺮاﺗﺒﯽ ﻓﺎزي اراﺋﻪ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد. در اﯾﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ ﺳﻌﯽ ﺑﺮ آن اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه و اﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ رﯾﺴﮏ از ﯾﮏ ﺳﻮ و ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﯿﺮي ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﯿﺎره ﻓﺎزياز ﺳﻮي دﯾﮕﺮ در ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ و استقرار سيستمهاي يكپارچه سازماني (ERP) ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻌﻤﻖ ﻗﺮار ﮔﯿﺮد.

لینک دانلود


برچسب‌ها: ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ رﯾﺴﮏ, ERP – ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﯿﺮي ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﯿﺎره ﻓﺎزي, ﻓﺮآﯾﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪ ﻣﺮاﺗﺒﯽ ﻓﺎزي, زنجيره فرايند, زنجيره ارزش
+ نوشته شده در 93/02/21ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |

 تفکر در سیستم ها، کار روی فرایندها ..........مدل کسب و کار جدید

   هومن عزيزي دانشجوي كارشناسي  ارشد واحد الكترونيك تهران شماره دانشجويي 910864861-درس بازمهندسي فرآيندهاي كسب و كار –استاد ارجمند جناب دكتر سيد اسماعيل نجفي تروجني


این مقاله در نظر دارد تا به توضیح علت شکست بسیاری از ابتکارهای « مدیریت کیفیت جامع» و ابتکارهای «مهندسی مجدد فرایند کسب و کار» در برآوردن انتظارات حامیانشان کمک کند و نحوه پیوند احتمالی این شکست ها با فقدان درک اجتماعی- تکنیکی (افراد/ فرایندها) را توضیح بدهد. این مقاله اهمیت افراد را مورد تأکید قرار می دهد، قابلیت های آنها را از قابلیت های ماشین های پردازشگر متمایز می کند و بر این اساس نقش سیستماتیک مفیدی را برای پردازش اطلاعات (IT) بعنوان یک کمک کننده در جهت نتایج عملکردی کسب و کار برتر مشخص می کند. یک چهارچوب دانش محور برای انجام چنین کاری توصیف می شود که مدیران را قادر می سازد تا  راه حل های خاصشان را که مبتنی بر اصول نیرومند سازمانی است که در نظم طبیعی یافت می شوند طرح کنند.

لینک دانلود



برچسب‌ها: تفکر در سیستم ها, کار روی فرایندها, مدل کسب و کار جدید, BPR, باز مهنسی فرآیندهای کسب و کار
+ نوشته شده در 93/02/21ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |


عنـوان پژوهش :  تجزيه و تحليل فرآيندهاي شركت ایران پارس  مبتني بر روش PBSA

استـاد ارجمنـد : جناب دکتر محمود البرزي

تهيـه و تنظيـم : هومن عزيزي  910864861

  ( دانشجوي کارشناسی ارشد مديريت فناوري اطلاعات - گرايش مديريت منابع اطلاعاتي )

دانلود


برچسب‌ها: تجزيه و تحليل فرآيندهاي شركت ایران پارس مبتني بر
+ نوشته شده در 92/07/25ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |

فعال سازي اينترنت سيم كارت همراه اول و ايرانسل روي انواع تبلت

الف) به بخش settings برويد.گزينهdata usage  را پيدا كرده وارد شويد.(نام آن در زبان فارسي سيستم عامل "مصرف داده " است).mobile data‌را فعال نماييد.

به بخش بالا سمت راست دقت كنيد.يك آيكون به شكل سه مربع زير هم مي بينيد.واردش شويد.data roaming‌را فعال نماييد.

 

ب) به بخش settings برويد.گزينه more setting را پيدا كرده وارد شويد.وارد بخش mobile network  شويد.وارد قسمت access point names شويد.( در زبان فارسيسيستم عامل اندرويد نام آن "نامهاي دسترسي "است.يك آيكن به شكل سه مربع ريز زير هم ملاحظه مي كنيد .واردش شويد.new APN را وارد نماييد.حالا شما در حال ساخت كانكشن بصورت دستي براي اتصال به اپراتور مورد نظر خود هستيد.

براي هر اپراتور به شرح جدول ذيل عمل نماييد:

در ايرانسل

در همراه اول

 

Irancell_GPRS

mcinet

Name

mtnirancell

mcinet

Apn

10.131.26.138

192.168.194.73

Proxy

8080

8080

Port

------------

192.168.194.73

Server

432

432

Mcc

35

11

Mnc

Pap

pap

authentication

Ipv4

ipv4

Apn protocol

default .supl

default .supl

Apn Type

unespcified

unespcified

Bearer

 

 

كليه مواردي كه ذكر نشده را not set‌تنظيم نماييد.

در پايان در همراه اول گزينه mcint  ودر ايرانسل irancell-GPRS را اگر غير فعال بود حتما فعال نماييد تا كانكشن شما فعال گردد.

اگر سوالي داشتيد از من نپرسيد چون بيشتر بلد نيستم.

پيروز باشيد


برچسب‌ها: اينترنت سيم كارت تبلت
+ نوشته شده در 92/07/01ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |


VLAN 1, 1002,1003,1004,1005 ARE FACTORY DEFAULT VLANS
so u can number your VLAN from 2-1001

ISL is Cisco proprietry.
DOT1Q is IEEEE Standad 802.1Q.
802.1Q SUPPORT 4096 VLAN.
802.1Q DONT tag on the NATIVE VLAN.
Make sure that Same Native VALN is configured on both Switch
MONO SPAN TREE!!

ISL and DOT1Q(802.1q) are frame tagging methods for Inter switch VLan Course.
ISL and DOT1Q are not compatible.
ISL + DOT1Q trunks enable VLAN across a switched network back bone.

They operates on Layer 2.
DOT1Q adds a field in the FRAME where as ISL adds HEADER and FCS means ISL really encapsultes the frame.


Inter Switched Link

1. It’s a CISCO proprietery Protocol.
2. performed with ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuits).
3. its only for SWITCHes and Routers and servers wit ISL Nic. Not for clients or hosts.
4. operates in P2P environment.
5. supported on 2600+ routers (is it ture that ISL dont support 1600,1700,2500 routers)?
6. Allow multiple vlan traffice on a single path (called TRUNK)
7. Each Switch/Router/ISL server should be ISL configureable/Capable
8. ISL is protocol independent. means it works fine with most of Layer 3 protocols.
9. ISL header 26 Bytes and 4 Bytes FCS
10. ISL provides VLAN trunking capablilties on FULL \ HALF duplex & support 1000 VLAN
11. USE PSVT (PER VLAN SPAN TREE)


Catalys 1900 switch can support 1005 VLANS with Seprate VLAN across a Trunk but it dont support more then 64 VTPS and REMEMBER v have only 27 ports (24+1+2) in 1900 switch.so the maths is
MAXimum 24porst :: 24 Vlans :: 24VTP

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

1. Vtp is used to distrubute and synchronize info (identifying) abt VLN configured throughtout a switched network.
2. VTP is also a Layer 2 protocol.
3. it works on MulitCasting
4. VTP Domian can exist on 1 or more SERVER Switches sharing same VTP environment. (is this statment true REFERENCE TK 83 TOPIC 2 SECTION 6-7-8 CHECK FOR VLAN SUBSECTION)
5. A Single Switch can be configured in ONE VTP DOMAIN ONLY .
6. VTP Server is a SWITCH not Router (true or False tell me )
7. A Switch in Transparent Mode can be in 2 Domains (1 is its own, and second domain is the one its just receving and forwarding information)
8. VTP advertisment are Multicast every 5 minutes or on change of configuration. Advertisements are forwarded on VLAN 1


VTP MODES

1. Server
2. Client
3. Transparent

Default mode of a switch is SERVER mode but VLAN are not propagated untill a [U]MANAGEMENT DOMAIN


[U]
is specified or learned
VTP messages are tranmitted on all trunks using ISL DOT1Q
VLAN are saved in NVRAM in SEVERS

SERVER MODE
Send \Forward VTP Advertisement
VLAN are saved in NVRAM in SEVERS
Cataylst switches can CREATE,MODIFY,DELETE, VLANS in Server modes
Synchronize VLAN config info with other Switches in Domian.

CLIENT MODE
Send \Forward VTP Advertisement
VLAN are NOT saved in NVRAM in CLIENT
Cataylst switches CANN'T CREATE,MODIFY,DELETE, VLANS in CLIENT modes
Synchronize VLAN config info with other Switches in Domian.

TRANSPARENT MODE
Forward VTP Advertisement
VLAN are NOT saved in NVRAM in CLIENT
Cataylst switches CANN'T CREATE,MODIFY,DELETE, VLANS in CLIENT modes
Synchronize VLAN config info with other Switches in Domian.

If there is no VLAN created by a user then BY DEFAULT Switch is in VTP Server mode and there is a VLAN named VLAN1. All ports of this Switch belong to that VLAN.

In Multiple VLAN environment, VLAN1 is used of management of other VLANs,
CDP & VTP info are send on VLAN1.
Switch 1900 IP address is in the VLAN Broadcast Domain.

switch(config)# vtp {[server|transparent|client] [domain DomainName] [trap (enable|Disable)] [password password] [prunning {enable|Disable}]}

switch(config)# DELETE vtp -- Set SWX with VTP Parameter Default to FACTORY.

DTPP - Domain Trap Password Prunning


TRUNK LINE CONFIG
In 1900 Cat Swx v have only 2 Fast Eth porst (fa0/26 port is called A and fa0/27 port is called cool.gif
Only these ports can be used for a TRUNK. (A trunk is used to connect 2 SWX or Router)

Switch(config)# trunk [ON|OFF|Desireable|Auto|Nonnegotiate]
[b]Switch(config)# show trunk [a / b]



PORT ASSIGNMENT TO VLAN

A port can belong to only 1 VLAN at a time

Switch(config)#Vlan-membership {static (vlan#)|dynamic}
Switch(config)#Show Vlan-membership


IF ROUTER USED FOR ISL TAGGING [/B]

int e 0.1
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 11 -------------(11 is the name of VLAN)

int e 0.2
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 22 -------------(22 is the name of VLAN)

int e 0.3
ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation isl 33 -------------(33 is the name of VLAN)


IF ROUTER USED FOR DOT1Q TAGGING [/B]

int e 0.1
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation DOT1Q 11 -------------(11 is the name of VLAN)


int e 0.2
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation DOT1Q 22 -------------(22 is the name of VLAN)

int e 0.3
ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation DOT1Q 33 -------------(33 is the name of VLAN)


ISL


VLAN CREATION ON 1900 WHICH SUPPORTS ISL ONLY
CONFIG)# VLAN 2 SALES
CONFIG)# VLAN 3 MARKETING
CONFIG)# VLAN 4 MIS
CONFIG)# EXIT
-----MEMBERSHIP ADDITION
CONFIG)# int e0/2
CONFIG)#vlan-membership static 2 --- make me member of VLAN 2
CONFIG)# int e0/3
CONFIG)#vlan-membership static 3 --- make me member of VLAN 3
CONFIG)# int e0/4
CONFIG)#vlan-membership static 3 --- make me member of VLAN 3
CONFIG)# int e0/5
CONFIG)#vlan-membership static 4 --- make me member of VLAN 4
CONFIG)# int e0/6
CONFIG)#vlan-membership static 4 --- make me member of VLAN 4
CONFIG)# int e0/7
CONFIG)#vlan-membership static 4 --- make me member of VLAN 4

Inter VLAN Communication

config terminal
config)#interface f0/26
if)#trunk on

ON----------------- trunk is on
OFF-----------------trunk is off
AUTO---------------trunk is on if the other side is ON \ Desirable
DESIRABLE--------trunk is on if the other side is ON \ Desirable \ Auto
NOnEGOTIATE-----trunk is on and it wont initiate the negotiation


DOT1Q


VLAN CREATION ON 2900 WHICH SUPPORTS dot1q ONLY
CONFIG)# VLAN 2
CONFIG)# name SALES

CONFIG)# VLAN 3
CONFIG)# name MARKETING

CONFIG)# VLAN 4
CONFIG)# name MIS
CONFIG)# EXIT

-----MEMBERSHIP ADDITION
CONFIG)# interface f0/2
CONFIG-if)#switchprot access vlan 2

CONFIG)# interface f0/3
CONFIG-if)#switchprot access vlan 3

CONFIG)# interface f0/4
CONFIG-if)#switchprot access vlan 3

CONFIG)# interface f0/5
CONFIG-if)#switchprot access vlan 4

CONFIG)# interface f0/6
CONFIG-if)#switchprot access vlan 4

CONFIG)# interface f0/7
CONFIG-if)#switchprot access vlan 4


---------------
CONFIG)# switchport mode trunk (on|off)
CONFIG)# switchport mode trunk dot1q

)# show vlan
)#show vlan brief


Switch 19000(ISL) and 2950 (Dot1q)
We will use 1 fast ehternet port of Router and Devide it into 2 or more SUBINTERFACES FOR MULTIPLE VLANS



STEPS TO CREATE AN INTERCONNECTED VLAN


1.create a VLANs on Switch
2.Assign ports to VLAN
2.1 Dynamic Assignment
2.2 Static Assignment
3. Creat VTP Domain. and Set its MODE (SERVER,CLIENT,TRANSPARENT)
4. Create Trunks for INTERNETWORK SWICTH communication
5. Involve Router for intervlan packet switching.
5.1 Subinterface Creation
5.2 Encapsulation settings


برچسب‌ها: نگاهي كوتاه به ISL, vtp در سيسكو
+ نوشته شده در 92/06/21ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |


ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of comminucation protocol, developed by Telco to digitalized their services to carry VOICE,VIDEO and DATA. Analog services are called PLAIN OLD TELEPHONE SERVICES POTS
ISDN is a set of protocols which cover 3 OSI layes NETWORK,DATA LINK AND PHYSICAL. It’s a low cost reliable and high speed link, run on both COPPER and FIBER media. It’s a circuit switched network.

B Chanels Circuit switch and D Chanels Packet Switch. ... ?? it is true

ADVANTAGES
1- 5+ times faster then 28.8kpbs analog modem.
2- use multiple devices on the same fone line like Video, Voice, Fax,Video Confrence etc
3-Drops from 2 B Chanels to 1 when incomig call detected.
4-Dynamic allocation

DISADVANTAGES
1-Central office OR Service Provider should be in 5 mile radius.
2-Difficult Setup

ITU-T define standerd which are important for Exam (difficult for candidate to digest)

SERIES--OSI--EXAMPLE------DESCRIPTION
E...........E-163........Packet Switch Telephone Network its a International Telephone Numbering System
E...........E-164........ISDN numbering Standerd
I...........I-100........Concepts, Stractures, Termonology
I...........I-200........Services Aspects
I...........I-300........Network Aspects
I...........I-400........User Network Interface (Uni)
I......1....I-430........Define Connectors, Encoding Frames, Reference Points
I......1....I-431........Define Connectors, Encoding Frames, Reference Points
I...........I-411........ISDN REFERENCES POINT (IMPORTANT Detail is following)
Q......2....I-921........Signaling, Switching at Data link Layer LAPD(Link Access Procedure Dedicated)
Q......3....I-931........its works on Network Layer in ISDN

Tool To remember
Focus on 2nd Digit in Q Series. It matches to the layer e.g. Q921 = Layer 2 Standerd and Q931 = Layer3 Standerd

SERVICES - 2 Services r supported on ISDN:
BRI (BASIC RATE INTERFACE)
PRI (PRIMARY RATE INTERFACE)

BRI + B & D Channels - 2B+D

B Channels are aslo called CLEAR CHANNELS because they are clear to send data. Data is transfered in B Channel and Singnals (Call setup etc) are resposiblity of D CHANNELS.
D makes it posssible to connect relativly much faster. D is called OUT OF BAND Channel because it only takes Signalling (Rest of every thing OUT).
B Chanel 64 Kbps Each
D Chanel 16 Kbps

B........128Kbps (64*2)
D.........16Kbps
------------
.........144Kbps
------------
Plus Frame OverHead= 144 + 48Kbps (Frame Overhead)
so total bandwidth supported by this chanel is 192Kbps is Total Bandwidth of BRI channel

ANY ROUTER WITH A SERIAL INTERFACE CAN BE CANNECTED TO A BRI WITH A TERMINAL ADAPTER (TA).

????????question is the following statment true ??????????????????????????????

D CHANNEL operated on LAPD and LapD depends on HDLC

PRI
It’s also known as (23B+D for T1 ) and (30B+D for E1 ). B Channels are aslo called CLEAR CHANNELS because they r clear to send data.

B Chanel 64 Kbps Each
D Chanel 64 Kbps--------Different then BRI(16Kbps)

Transfer RATE
T1.... 1.544Mpbs.....23 B Channels.....USA and Japan
E1.... 2.048Mpbs.....30 B Channels.....Rest of world

in E1 Sequence of Channels
1--15 channels....B
16th .Channel.....D
1--15 channels....B

PRI uses DSU\CSU for T1\E1 Connection.
Terminals \ Functional Groups
These are PHYSICAL DEVICES involved in ISDN connectivity.

TERMINAL EQUIPMENT 2 (Functional Group)
TE2 is old technology (like ordinary fone sets working on analog) that dont support ISDN series so it need a Conversion Device named TERMINAL ADAPTOR. (THINK LIKE SOMETHING MODEM)

TERMINAL EQUIPMENT 1 (Functional Group)
TE1 is ISDN Ready Devices that dont need any converion device like Terminal Adaptors.

TERMINAL ADAPTOR. (Functional Group)
Takes the analog data from TERMINAL EQUIPMENT 1 and make it ISDN READY. Converts EIA\TIA-232, V35 & into BRI SIGNAL..

Network Termination 2 (Functional Group)
NT2 is the point (Device) at which all ISDN lines at Customer Premises are agregated and Switched using cusmtomer Switch Device Private Branch Exchange(PBX). they are very rare in usage. So even most documents dont Discuss them.

Network Termination 1 (Functional Group)
NT1 is a LOCAL LOOP TERMINAER. it converst BRI singnals intor formused by ISDN DIGITAL LINE. It can be in Customer premises or in TELCO (diffent in Europe and USA)

REFERENCE POINTS (I-411 STANDERD)
RP are used to characterised the interfaces between ISDN Devices. (RF are logical)
RF--Location (Function Group)-------
R---Between TE2 and TA--------------between NON ISDN DEVICE AND TERMINAL ADAPTOR
S---Between TE1\TA and NT2----------ISDN READY to Network Terminator
T---Between NT2 and NT1
U---Between NT1 and ISDN Network

Note: Electronically S and T are same so some devices are labeled as ST. They are identical so in most cases we dont see the S R Point and our networks work properly.


TOOL TO REMEMBER
R---- not isdn ready old device-->R=REGULAR
S---- isdn ready devices--------->S=SPECIAL
T-------------------------------->T=TERMINATION POINT
U----if its in Cus. Premises then customer will provide power to the NT1

so->U=UNPOWER

Functional Groups + References Points altogather
-------R-----------S--------------T--------------U
TE2-------->TA----------->NT2------------>NT1------------>TELCO
.
--------------S-------------------T--------------U
TE1---------------------->NT2------------>NT1------------>TELCO

ALSO TRY TO DRAW FUNCTION GROUPS AND REFERENCE POINT ON PAPER SO THAT U CAN VISUALISE THEM PROPERLY.

IF you have BRI interface in your Router, it’s NT1 so U Labled on interfce
No Bri Interface but Serial interface(TE2) Use External T.A
If u must supply NT1 (in US) make sure Router have U interface otherwise purchase NT1.

SPID
Many books gave it many names like SERVICE PROFILE ID, SERVICE PROVIDER ID, PSEUDO PASSWORD ID Etc. It is a numerical string of 14 characters assigned by TELCO to EACH B CHANNEL on an ISDN link.

GENERIC FORMAT OF SPID
NUMBER OF DIGITS---NAME-------------------RANGE
10-----------------Digit form-------------
02-----------------Sharing Terminal ID----01-32
02-----------------Terminal ID------------01-08

SWITCH TYPE
There are different switch types around the globe (No Standard). And unfortunatly Cisco supports then so do CCNA. Switch type and SPID is informed by the telco to customer. And it can be configurable in Global or Interface Mode.

Router(config)#isdn switch-type
example
Router(config)#isdn basic-ni1

Switch type value---Description
basic-5ess----------AT&T in USA
basic-dms100--------NorTel USA
basic-ni1-----------National ISDN1 North America
basic-ts013---------Australia
basic-net3----------net3 & net5 are used in UK and Europe
basic-nit-----------Japan

note
missed topic are
DDR
ISDN SBus


برچسب‌ها: نگاهي كوتاه ISDN
+ نوشته شده در 92/06/21ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |


In 1984 FRAME RELAY started to develop.
Frame Relay deliver variable size data frames to multiple WAN site. Multi Access is the most obvious difference between Frame Relay and Leased lines. Leased lines ae used as acccess link of Frame Relay.

In 1990 FRAME RELAY CONSOTIUM was created by following four copmanies: Cisco, Startdacom, Nortel and Dec. (AKA: GANG OF FOURs) to standardise the Frame Relay this consortium start working Later ANSI & ITU-T aslo like the idea.


DTE -- Data Terminating Equipment
DCE-- Data Circuit Terminating Equipment
Access- Line
Trunk- Line
in Frame Realy From Router 1 to Router 2 a VIRTUAL CIRCUIT is created.
NOTE: Router opperate on Layer 3 and Switch operates on Layer 2. when Frame RelayNetwork a Router is working as a Frame relay switch then its operating on Layer 2.

L.M.I - Some LMI type is required between DTE and DCE (Switch). LMI autosense enabled in IOS 11.2 & greater. 1 LMI exists per serial Interface.

DLC - Data Link Connection Identifier
In header there is a single DLCI field. No Source or Desitnation field like LAN addresses.
LOCAL DLCI
Global DLCI
A Practical Way to identifiy between Global and Local DLCI is:
if two Virtual Circuit terminate at a DTC and a single DLCI is shown. its most probably is GLOCBAL DLCI. if one DLCI is shown per VC then it is depicting Local DLCI.

FRAME RELAY PACKET
consist of 2 Bytes. .
6 Bits of First Bytes are called High Order Bits
4 Bits of Second Bytes are called Low Order Bits

DLCI number consist of 6+4 Bits of high and low order bits

7th Bits is CR (Commited RATE) -- First Byte
8th Bit is EA-------------------------------

5th Bit is FORWARD EXPLICIT CONGESTION NOTIFICATION (FECN) -- Second Byte
6th Bit is BACKWARD EXPLICIT CONGESTION NOTIFICATION (BECN) -- Second Byte
7th Bit is Discard Eligibility------------------------------------------------------------------ Second Byte
8th Bit is EA--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Second Bytes

Note that FECN-BECN is always set by (DCE) Frame Relay Switch and Discard Eligibility is set by Sending Router.

Broadcast are not supported over a framerelay network so this is done in 2 steps:

1. IOS sends copies of Broadcast accross each VC u instruct.
2.Router Places these Broadcast in Different Ques then the ordinary user traffic.
TYPE OF CONFIGURATION----------SPLIT HORIZON IS
No Subinterfaces---P2P------------------Enable
No Subinterfaces Multi Point----------Disabled
Subinterfaces-------P2P------------------Enable
Subinterfaces Multi Point--------------Disable
if)#ip split horizon
if)#no ip split horizon
Address Mapping
1 Static Config Mapping
2 Dynamically Mapping

Dynamic Mapping use a process called INVERSE ARP. each router announces its layer 3 addresss + DLCI to its adjacent Routers. INVERSE ARP is enabled by default at 11.2 and greater versions unless point to point subinterfaces are used.



برچسب‌ها: نگاهي كوتاه Frame relay
+ نوشته شده در 92/06/21ساعت توسط هومن عزیزی |

مطالب قدیمی‌تر